Bimanual Haptic Simulation of Bone Fracturing for the Training of the Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy
In this work we present a haptic training simulator for a maxillofacial procedure comprising the controlled breaking of the lower mandible. To our knowledge the haptic simulation of fracture is seldom addressed, especially when a realistic breaking behavior is required. Our system combines bimanual haptic interaction with a simulation of the bone based on well-founded methods from fracture mechanics. The system resolves the conflict between simulation complexity and haptic real-time constraints by employing a dedicated multi-rate simulation and a special solving strategy for the occurring mechanical equations. Furthermore, we present remeshing-free methods for collision detection and visualization which are tailored for an efficient treatment of the topological changes induced by the fracture. The methods have been successfully implemented and tested in a simulator prototype using real pathological data and a semi-immersive VR-system with two haptic devices. We evaluated the computational efficiency of our methods and show that a stable and responsive haptic simulation of the fracturing has been achieved.